ere-s-2 (ers-, r̥s-, eres-), and rē̆ s-, rō̆ s-

ere-s-2 (ers-, r̥s-, eres-), and rē̆ s-, rō̆ s-
    ere-s-2 (ers-, r̥s-, eres-), and rē̆ s-, rō̆ s-
    English meaning: to flow
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “fließen”; von lebhafter Bewegung ũberhaupt, also “umherirren” and “aufgebracht, aufgeregt sein”
    Material: 1. O.Ind. rása-ḥ “juice, sap, fluidity”, rasǘ “ dampness, humidity”, also mythical river name equally Av. Raṅhü (i.e. Rahü), out of it the name the Wolga ΏΡᾶ; Lat. rōs, rōris “dew” (conservative stem with originally bare nominativischer lengthened grade ō); Alb. resh, reshën “ it is snowing, it is raining “, also “ shower of ash, fire” (probably likewise from *rōs-); Gk. ἀπ-εράω (*erǝsō) “ pour liquid, spew away “ (?), ἐξ-εράω “ empty, spit out, spew “, κατ-εράω “ pour in “, μετ-εράω “ transfuse “, συνεράω “ pour together “; after Debrunner IF. 48, 282 the basic meaning from ἐράω “ spill, pour on the earth “ and the verb would derive from ἔρα “earth” (above S. 332); O.C.S. rosa “dew”, Lith. rasà ds. Maybe Alb. rosa f. “duck, water bird” 2. root form ers-, r̥s-; r̥sen “virile”. O.Ind. árṣati “ flows “; further with the meaning “virile” (from “ moistening, pouring seeds “) O.Ind. r̥ṣa-bhá-ḥ “bull”, aja-rṣabhá-ḥ “he-goat”, Av. O.Pers. aršan “man, husband, penis”, Gk. Hom. ἄρσην, Att. ἄρρην, Ion. Eol. Cret. ἔρσην (without F-!) “virile” (in addition *αρνηFός, Hom. ἀρνειός “ of a lamb or sheep, ram” = Att. ἀρνεώς, Eol. ἀρνήαδες f., in addition ἀρνεύω “ make an aerial jump, dive “, actually “ make a leapfrog “, ἀρνευτήρ “ one who flips over in the air, capers, jump about “, Lith. by Boisacq under ἀρνειός and ἀρνευτήρ Nachtr.), probably also O.H.G. or[re]huon, O.N. orre “ grouse “ (out of it M.H.G. ūrhan, Ger. Auerhahn through hybridization with O.H.G. ūr, ūrohso). 3. affiliation of our root *eres- to *er-, *or- “ set in motion, lively movement “ is worth considering. Other s-forms show additional meaning from root er-, or-: Arm. eṙam (*ersü-i̯ō; compare above O.Ind. arṣati) “ boil, flow; be in perpetually in motion; be teeming; be excited passionately; be or become keen, angry “, er̄andn “ surge etc.; excitement “, z-eṙam “ moves me around, stirs me, I am strongly moved, excited, swim etc.”; Gk. ἐρωή “ swing, verve, rush” (*rōsǘ ; therefrom but also ἐρωέω “flow, stream, hurry “); Lat. rōrürii “ light armed skirmisher, kind of light-armed Roman troops, who usually made the first attack and then retired, skirmishers “ (derivative from *rōsü “ swing “ = βελέων, δουρὸς ἐρωή); O.N. rüs f. “run”, M.N.Ger. rüs n. “ intense current”, O.E. rǣ s m. “run, attack “ (Eng. race skand. Lw.), M.H.G. rüsen “dash”, O.E. rǣ san “ onrush “, O.N. rüsa “dash forth, rush along”; O.N. ras n. “haste, hurry”, rasa ‘stream, glide, slide” (ablaut *rōs- : *rēs- : *rǝs-?); Goth. rēs in PN Rēs-mēr; in addition with the concept partly of the worried, also aimless movement, partly of the excitement, the violent rage: on the one hand: Lat. errō (*ersüi̯ ō) “to wander, to wander or stray about, to wander up and down, to rove” (= Arm. eṙam), Goth. aírzeis “ wander, enticed “, O.H.G. irri “ wander “, Goth. aírziÞa f. “error, deceit”, O.H.G. irrida ds., irr(e)ōn (*erziōn) “err”; on the other hand: O.S. irri “angry, irate”, O.E. eorre, yrre “angry, irate, rancorous”, eorsian, iersian “ to wish a person ill “. 4. eres- in O.Ind. irasyáti “ is angry, is ill-disposed, behaves violently “ (*eres-), irasyǘ - “the ill-will “ and ī́rṣyati “ is envious “ (*erǝs-), Av. participle arǝšyant- “ envious “, O.Ind. īrṣ yǘ - “ envy, jealousy “ Av. aras-ka- “ envy “, M.Pers. Pers. arašk “ envy, eagerness “, zero grade Av. ǝrǝši- “ envy “; ved. ŕ̥ṣi- m. “ bard, seer “ (*lunatic); Arm. heṙ “anger, envy, strife “; Gk. ἄρος ἀκούσιον βλάβος Hes., Hom. ἀρειή “ defamatory word “ (= O.Ind. irasyǘ ), in addition ἐπήρεια “ violent, hostile action “ (Proto-Gk. ü, compare ark. ἐπηρειάζεν, with lengthening in compound due to a *ἐπ-ᾱρής), compare also ἐρεσχηλέω “ banter “; ῎Αρης “ god of revenge “ seems if personification of the related Subst. ἀρή “ ruin, outrage, act of violence “, whereof ἀ̄ρήμενος “ distressed, injured, hurt, disabled, afflicted “; Lith. aršù s “violent”; Hitt. arsaniya- “ be jealous, envious “, Denom. from *arsana- “ jealous “ (compare above O.Ind. īrṣ yǘ “ envy “), Benveniste BAL.-SLAV. 33, 139; after Pedersen REtIE. 3, 18 here Toch. A ürṣ al “ poisonous worms “, В arṣüklai ‘snake” (*r̥sütlü); to O.Ind. árṣati “ flows “ (above S . 336) places Couvreur H̯ 96 Hitt. a-ar-aš-zi (arszi) “ flows “; Toch. A yär-s-, В yar-s- “bathe” (-s- from -sk-), without sk-suffix A yär- ds., would be compared with Hitt. arra- “wash” (?).
    References: WP. I 149 ff., WH. I 416 f., 863, Trautmann 237.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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